Landforms of The Earth Questions & Answers

Hi Everyone!! This article will share Landforms of The Earth Questions & Answers.

In my previous posts, I have shared the Questions & Answers of Motions of The Earth and Globe – Latitudes and Longitudes so, you can check these posts as well. I have also shared Landforms of The Earth Objective Type Questions & Answers so, make sure to check that post also.

Landforms of The Earth Questions & Answers

Question 1: Briefly describe some of the minor landforms with examples.

Answer: Some of the minor landforms are:

i. Peninsula
A land surrounded on water on three sides and connected to the mainland on one side is known as a peninsula. India, for example, is a peninsula surrounded by – the Arabian Sea, Bay of Bengal and the Indian Ocean on its three sides.

ii. Isthmus
A narrow strip of land that joins two large landmasses and separates two water bodies is known as isthmus. Isthmus of Panama joins North America and South America.

iii. Island
Islands are masses of land that are surrounded by water bodies on all sides. For example, the Barren island in India.

Question 2: How are residual mountains formed?

Answer: Continuous erosion of old fold mountains, block mountains or volcanic mountains over the years forms residual mountains.

Question 3: Mountains are very useful to mankind. Explain.

Answer: Mountains are useful to mankind in the following ways:

  • Mountains are sources of glaciers and perennial rivers (the Ganga in India). These rivers provide water for irrigation and power generation (hydroelectricity).
  • River valleys and mountain slopes are used for cultivation of crops and fruits.
  • Mountains are a rich source of minerals.
  • Mountains also provide medicinal herbs, stones for construction, etc.
  • Mountains are home to a variety of plants and animals.
  • Mountain ranges influence the climate of land in many places.
  • Snow-capped peaks and picturesque valleys attract thousands of tourists every year.
  • Mountains also provide locations for adventurous sports such as river rafting, skiing, trekking, rock climbing, etc.

Question 4: What is the difference between a mountain and a plateau?


i. It is a naturally elevated surface of the earth.i. It is an elevated flat land.
ii. It is higher than the surrounding area.ii. It is a flat-topped land that stands above the surrounding area.
iii. Mountains have peaks.iii. Plateaus are flattened highlands.

Landforms of The Earth Questions & Answers

Question 5: How are plains formed?

Answer: Most of the plains are formed by rivers and their tributaries. The rivers flow down the slopes of mountains and erode them. They carry forward the eroded material. Then they deposit their load consisting of stones, sand and silt along their courses and in their valleys. It is from these deposits that plains are formed.

Question 6: Describe the different types of mountains.


i. Fold Mountains
Fold mountains are formed when layers of sediments are subjected to forces of compression, which forms a series of folds. There are two types of fold mountains – old fold mountains and young fold mountains.

ii. Block Mountains
Sometimes forces of compression and tension may cause cracks or faults on the earth’s crust. When the land between two faults is pushed upwards above the surrounding level, they form block mountain or horsts.

iii. Volcanic Mountains
Volcanic mountains are formed when hot molten lava erupts from vents on the earth’s surface. Lava along with dust, ashes, liquid mud, etc. accumulates around the vent in layers.

iv. Residual Mountains
Continuous erosion of old fold mountains, block mountains or volcanic mountains over the years forms residual mountains.

Question 7: Why are river valleys densely populated?

Answer: Rivers are mainly densely populated because with the help of the river the land becomes more fertile, thus making it a suitable place for agriculture. The climate as well as the temperature are also good.

Question 8: Why are mountains thinly populated?

Answer: The mountains are thinly populated because of harsh climate. Also, the slopes are steep, less land is available for farming.

Question 9: Why are most mineral-based industries located in plateau regions?

Answer: Plateaus are rich reserves of mineral resources and that is why most mineral-based industries located in plateau regions.

Landforms of The Earth Questions & Answers

Question 10: Describe the different types of tectonic plateaus with one example for each.

Answer: Tectonic plateaus are of three types:

i. Continental Plateaus are formed by the upliftment of a block of land from the adjacent lowland or sea. For example: Chotanagpur plateau in India.
ii. Intermontane Plateaus are the highest and extensive types. The plateaus are surrounded by hills and mountains on all sides. For example, the Tibetan plateau between the Himalayas and the Kunlun fold mountains.
iii. Piedmont Plateau lies at the foot of mountains, for example, the Plateau of Patagonia in Argentina.

Question 11: State any two points of importance of plains.


i. The fertile soil of the plains is useful for agriculture.
ii. Rivers flowing through the plains provide enough water for human settlements.
iii. Construction of buildings, industries and transportation is easy on the flat land of plains.

Question 12: Describe the formation of Fold Mountains.

Answer: Fold mountains are formed when large scale Earth movements cause wrinkling or folding of the Earth’s crust along the line of weakness. The land is lifted in wavelike formation. The upfold or anticline forms the mountain and the downfold or syncline forms the valley. For example – the Aravallis and the Urals and the Appalachians are few examples of old fold mountains formed millions of years ago.
Whereas, the Himalayas (India), the Alps (Europe), the Rockies in North America), Andes (South America) are examples of young fold mountains.

Question 13: Explain the internal forces according to the Continental Drift Theory and the Plate Tectonic Theory.

Answer: The Continental Drift Theory and the Plate Tectonic Theory state that the crust of the Earth is divided into plates, which are in constant motion due to these internal forces. These plates collide with each other causing earthquakes and volcanoes.

Question 14: Explain the different types of Internal forces based on speed.

Answer: Based on speed, the movement within the Earth due to internal forces are of two types – slow and fast.

Slow Movements
Slow movements within the Earth are either caused by compression or by tension. Internal forces also result in the formation of mountains and plateaus due to constant movements of the Earth’s plates.

Fast/Sudden movements 
These movements cause considerable deformation over a short span of time, and may be of two types: Earthquakes and volcanoes.

So, these were Landforms of The Earth Questions & Answers.

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