Indus Valley Civilization Questions & Answers

Indus Valley Civilization Questions & Answers

Hi Everyone!! This article will share Indus Valley Civilization Questions & Answers.

In my previous post, I have shared Indus Valley Civilization Objective Type Questions & Answers so, make sure to check that post as well.

Indus Valley Civilization Questions & Answers

Question 1: Define Civilization.

Answer: The term ‘civilization’ is derived from Latin words civitas meaning courteousness and civilis meaning relating to a citizen. Civilization can be defined as ‘the stage of human social development and organization which is considered most advanced’.

Question 2: Why is the age of the River Valley Civilizations is also known as the Bronze Age?

Answer: The period of the River Valley Civilizations is also known as the Bronze Age as most of the material used during this period was made up of bronze. This played an important role in the growth of the civilizations.

Question 3: Why is the Indus Valley Civilization also known as the Harappan Civilization?

Answer: The first city to be excavated was city of Harappa, Indus Valley Civilization is also known as the Harappan Civilization.

Question 4: State the four features of a civilization.

Answer: Town planning, Houses, Drainage system, Great Bath, Granary are the features of a civilization.

Indus Valley Civilization Questions & Answers

Question 5: Give reasons:

(a) Harappan cities demonstrate a good sense of civil planning and organisation.

Answer: The city was divided into two parts namely the Citadel and the Lower Town. Each part was surrounded by walls of baked bricks. The Citadel accommodated significant civic and religious public buildings such as Great Bath, residences of the ruling classes, etc. The Lower Town had a larger residential area and was meant for the common people. The houses were arranged in a grid pattern with streets cutting across one another almost at right angles. Thus, the city was divided into many rectangular blocks. The main roads were very wide. The discovery of wooden fossils indicates that probably lamp posts were installed on the roads.

(b) The Great Bath at Mohenjodaro reveals the architectural development of the Indus Valley people.

Answer: The tank itself measured 39 feet long, 23 feet broad and about 8 feet deep. It was constructed with bricks, coated with plaster and a layer of natural tar that made it water-tight. There were steps at either end leading down to the bath. Rooms were constructed on sides for changing clothes. Water was probably drawn from a well to fill the bath. There were provisions made to drain out used water. It is believed that the Great Bath was intended used for religious ceremonies.

Question 6: Why did the Indus Valley Civilization develop on the banks of river Indus?

Answer: i. Large populations migrated to river valleys, as the area had surplus food and water.
ii. River banks were used for fishing and hunting as the wild animals used to come to river banks to drink water.
iii. People got the opportunity to do jobs other than farming.
iv. Annual floods near the rivers spread silt across the valleys.
V. Silt makes the valleys fertile for crops to grow in. Rivers were used for irrigation.
vi. Irrigation brought water to dry areas and lead to surplus farming. Transportation became easier.
vii. Rivers also served as a natural barrier since it protected the area from surprise invasion from across the river.
viii. The period of the River Valley Civilizations is also known as the Bronze Age as most of the material used during this period was made up of bronze. This played an important role in the growth of the civilizations.

Indus Valley Civilization Questions & Answers

Question 7: Discuss the trade in the Indus Valley Civilization.

Answer: i. The importance of trade in the life of the Indus people is supported by the number of seals, weights, measures, granaries and uniform script found at Harappa, Mohenjodaro and Lothal.
ii. The Harappans had trade relations with Afghanistan and Iran.
iii. Harappan seals have been discovered in Mesopotamia.
iv. Mesopotamian texts from about 2350 BCE indicate trade relations between the two civilizations.
v. They did not use metal money and perhaps carried exchanges through the barter system.
vi. Tin, silver and gold were brought from Afghanistan.

Question 8: Dholavira is an important Indus valley site in India. Justify the statement.

Answer: Dholavira was situated on Khadir beyt, an island in the Rann of Kutch in Gujarat, where fertile soil and freshwater was available. Unlike other cities of Harappa which were separated into two parts, Dholavira was separated into three parts. Massive stone walls surrounded each part, with entrances through gateways. A large open area in the settlement indicates that public ceremonies were held there. Large letters of the Indus script were some of the other findings. These were carved out of white stone and probably inlaid in wood. This is a unique discovery because usually, Harappan writing has found on various small objects such as seals.

Question 9: Describe the economic conditions of the Indus valley people.

Answer: The Indus people cultivated crops such as wheat, barley, legumes, rice, etc. No ploughshare has been discovered but furrows discovered at Kalibangan indicate that fields were ploughed. Perhaps, Harappans used the wooden plough drawn by oxen, and camels. Gabarbands or nalas enclosed by dams were used forstoring water. These were found in parts of Baluchistan and Afghanistan. Buffaloes, oxen, sheep, goat, were some of the animals domesticated by the people of Indus valley.

Trade contacts
The importance of trade in the life of the Indus people is supported by the number of seals, weights, measures, granaries and uniform script found at Harappa, Mohenjodaro and Lothal. The Harappans had trade relations with Afghanistan and Iran. Harappan seals have been discovered in Mesopotamia. Mesopotamian texts from about 2350 BCE indicate trade relations between the two civilizations. They did not use metal money and perhaps carried exchanges through the barter system. Tin, silver and gold were brought from Afghanistan.

Indus Valley Civilization Questions & Answers

Question 10: Write about the pottery of the Indus Valley Civilization.

Answer: i. Harappan pottery is one of the finest specimens of Harappan art.
ii. They were chiefly made of wheel bright or dark red in colour and well baked.
iii. Both plain and painted potteries were found. Plain varieties of pottery were more common.
iv. Different types of pottery such as polychrome, glazed, perforated, incised and knobbed were known to Harappan people.
v. Generally flora, fauna, geometrical designs and scenes from forest life were illustrated on the potteries.

Question 11: Give reasons – Seals are most distinct relic of Indus Valley Civilization.

Answer: i. Seals are the most distinct relic of Indus Valley Civilization. They were made of steatite and faience and generally square and rectangular in shape.
ii. They had animal motifs, different signs and symbols on it.
iii. The most famous Harappan seals are ‘Unicorn seal’ and ‘Pashupati seal’ discovered at Mohenjodaro. The latter depicts a horned deity, probably Shiva Pashupati, sitting in a yogic posture.
iv. He is surrounded by animals – an elephant, a tiger, a rhinoceros, a buffalo.
v. Two antelopes can be seen under the throne.

Question 12: Describe the dress and the ornaments worn by the people of the Indus Valley Civilization.

Answer: i. Clothes made of cotton fabrics were commonly used but wool was also used. The art of stitching may be known to them as a needle and thread were discovered at Harappa.
ii. The men wore something similar to dhoti and women wore skirt. Both men and women wore shawls on the upper body.
iii. Both men and women of all classes wore ornaments.
iv. Ornaments such as necklaces, armlets, fillets, finger-rings and bangles were worn by both men and women; whereas nose studs, girdles, anklets and ear-rings by women alone.
v. These ornaments were made of gold, ivory, silver, copper and both precious and semi-precious stones such as crystal, jade, agate, carnelian and lapis lazuli.

Question 13: Describe any two features of the drainage system in Indus Valley Civilization.

Answer: i. The Indus Valley Civilization had an elaborate and planned underground drainage system. Houses were connected to the main drain equipped with manholes.
ii. They were mostly made up of bricks with mud mortar.
iii. Gypsum and lime were used to make the drains watertight.

So, these were Indus Valley Civilization Questions & Answers.

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