Jainism and Buddhism Questions & Answers

Hi Everyone!! This article will share Jainism and Buddhism Questions & Answers.

In my previous posts, I have shared Questions & Answers of Indus Valley Civilization, From Janas to Mahajanapadas and The Vedic Age and so, make sure to go through these posts as well.

Jainism and Buddhism Questions & Answers

Question 1: What is the meaning of the term Upanishad?

Answer: The term Upanishad means sitting down near, this implies students sitting down near their Guru to learn the big secret.

Question 2: List the names of some of the Upanishads.

Answer: The names of some of the Upanishads are – Isha, Katha, Mundaka, Aitareya, Chandogya, Brihadaranyaka.

Question 3: What were the Upanishads also known as?

Answer: The Upanishads were also known as Vedanta which literally means the conclusion to the Vedas.

Question 4: Which event is called as the ‘Turning of the Wheel of Law’?

Answer: Gautama Buddha delivered his first sermon in the Pali language at Sarnath, which is called the ‘Turning of the Wheel of Law’.

Question 5: Write a short note on the Upanishads.

Answer: The term Upanishad means sitting down near; this implies students sitting down, near their Guru to learn the big secret. In Sanskrit, these words mean upa near; ni down and sad to sit. Philosophers who composed the Upanishads pondered upon the various ambiguities of life and its creation. The answers they found were, nevertheless, open to only a few selected students, the reason being not everyone can handle knowledge. The Upanishads opened up the intriguing account of creation, life, the essence of life through episodes, commentaries, stories and dialogues. They were compiled over a long period, mainly the Mahajanapadas period. The Upanishads were initially known as Vedanta, which literally means the conclusion to the Vedas. There were various Upanishads such as Isha, Kena, Katha, Parsha, Mundaka, Koushik, Taittiriya, Aitareya, Chandogya, Brihadarnayaka.

Jainism and Buddhism Questions & Answers

Question 6: Discuss the teachings of Jainism.

Answer: The five principles of Jainism are –

  • Ahimsa: not to injure any living being.
  • Satya: not to speak lies.
  • Asteya: not to steal.
  • Tyag: not to own property.
  • Brahmacharya: observance of celibacy.

The first four teachings were taken from the earlier Tirthankaras whereas the last teaching was added by Mahavira. The followers of Jainism are known as Jains. The Jains believe that liberation from worldly bonds can be obtained by following Triratnas or three jewels of Jainism. They are: right knowledge, right faith and right action.

Question 7: Answer the following questions:

(a) Where does a Jain monk live?

Answer: A Jain monk or nun lives away from his or her family and travels from one place to another on foot.

(b) What kind of food do they eat?

Answer: They eat the food offered to them by the house holders.

(c) How do they spend their day?

Answer: They study almost the whole day and meditate two or three times each day. They do not eat before sunrise or after sunset

(d) Why do they cover their mouth?

Answer: They cover their mouth with a cloth while talking so that they do not kill any organism in the process.

Question 8: State the Eight Fold Path.

Answer: The Eight Fold Path consists of:

  • Right Faith means a basic and thorough understanding of the Four Noble Truths.
  • Right Thought means having an unselfish and mentally healthy attitude to life, free from hatred and greed.
  • Right Speech means speaking words that are good and true. One should not lie or gossip.
  • Right Action means always conducting oneself in a way that does not harm, hurt nor displease anyone. Cheating, stealing and murder are specifically denounced.
  • Right Living means that one must always strive to earn one’s livelihood by honest means.
  • Right Effort means one should conscientiously strive to develop good tendencies and destroy negative inclinations.
  • Right Remembrance means we should introspect about our inclinations and not give easily to temptation.
  • Right Meditation means working towards training your mind for intense concentration which, in turn, will lead to salvation.

Question 9: Write a short note on Buddhist monks.

Answer: The Buddha set up monasteries known as Sangha. He also laid out rules for the conduct of his monks. Both men and women were admitted to monasteries. A Buddhist monk, also known as bhikshu, had to abandon the world and live on the charity of the common people. Each morning the monk would have to go begging for alms for their meals. The monks shave their heads and wear simple saffron robes.

Jainism and Buddhism Questions & Answers

Question 10: What were the factors that led to religious unrest in India during the period 600 BCE and 400 BCE?

Answer:

  • The period during 600 BCE and 400 BCE saw the development of a complex caste system which came to be based on birth.
  • This rigidity in the caste system saw great opposition, which later on gave rise to new religions.  The caste system became very rigid and importance was given to the three upper castes; Brahmins, Kshatriyas and Vaishyas. The Sudras were looked down upon.
  • As trade was increasing, the economic conditions of the Vaishyas improved. However, they were considered low in the social ladder as compared to Brahmins and Kshatriyas.
  • People were forced to follow elaborate and costly rituals as subscribed by the Brahmins.
  • Animal Sacrifice became common.
  • Importance was given to Sanskrit which was not understood by masses. All the above factors led to religious unrest in India. People wanted a simple religion in a language known to them. These were fulfilled by the teachings of Gautam Buddha and Vardhaman Mahavira.

Question 11: Give reason – Buddhism spread nationally and internationally.

Answer: The spread of Buddhism nationally and internationally due to two main things; the support of the common people and state patronage. Ashoka incorporated the principles of Buddhism and promoted the same.  By 250 BCE, Buddhism had spread to Sri Lanka. Later, the Mahayana sect of Buddhism reached South-East Asia and China. In the 6TH Century CE, it extended to Cambodia and in the 4th century CE to Thailand. The influence of Buddhism also established its root in countries and regions such as Myanmar, Nepal, Tibet, Central Asia, and Japan.

Question 12: State the four Noble Truth laid by Gautam Buddha.

Answer: The four noble truths are:

  • The world is full of suffering and sorrow.
  • The cause of suffering is desire.
  • The renunciation of desires will lead to salvation from the world.
  • The path to salvation can be achieved by following the Eight Fold Path.

Question 13: Distinguish between the two sects of Jainism: Digambaras and Shvetambaras on the basis of attainment of salvation and status of women.

Answer:

 DigambarasShvetambaras
Attainment of salvationStress the practice of nudity as a path and to the attainment of salvation.Assert that the practice of complete nudity is not essential to attain liberation.
Status of womenBelieved that women cannot achieve liberation.Believed that women can achieve liberation.

So, these were Jainism and Buddhism Questions & Answers.