Nutrition In Animals Questions & Answers

Nutrition In Animals Questions & Answers

Hi Everyone!! This article will share Nutrition In Animals Questions & Answers.

Whenever we perform any physical activity, we feel tired and we feel like eating something. This is because to perform any activity, our body needs energy. All living organisms need the energy to perform different functions such as synthesis or procurement of food and use of this food for growth, repair and maintenance of the body. From where the body gets energy? The answer is from the food that we eat. Below are mentioned the questions and answers of Nutrition In Animals. I have also shared Nutrition In Plants Questions & Answers so, you can check that post as well.

Nutrition In Animals Questions & Answers

Question 1: What is nutrition? What type of nutrition is found in green plants?

Answer: The process of obtaining food and its utilisation by the body is known as nutrition. Autotrophic nutrition is found in green plants.

Question 2: What is Heterotrophic nutrition?

Answer: The word hetero means different and troph means nutrition. Animals depend either on plants or on other animals for their food as they cannot make their own food. This type of nutrition is known as heterotrophic nutrition and these organisms are known as heterotrophs.

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Question 3: Name some organisms which eat neither plants nor animals.

Answer:

  • Leech that feeds on human and animal blood.
  • Fungi grow on dead organic matter to obtain nutrition.
  • Tapeworm resides in the intestines of animals.

Must Read: Microorganisms – Friend and Foe Questions & Answers

Must Read: Fibre To Fabric Questions & Answers

Question 4: Classify animals on the basis of eating habits.

Answer: On the basis of eating habits, the animals can be classified as:

1. Herbivorous – These are the animals that eat plant or plant products. For example – cow, goat, deer, elephant, giraffe, etc.

2. Carnivorous – These are the animals that eat the flesh of other animals and never eat plants. For example – tiger, lion, lizard, etc.

3. Omnivorous – Animals that eat both plants as well as animals as their food. For example – bear, dog, human being, etc.

4. Parasites – Animals that obtain their food from other animals either by living inside (endoparasites) or outside their body (ectoparasites). For example – tapeworm and roundworm are endoparasites and tick & lice are ectoparasites.

 5. Scavengers – Animals that feed on remains of dead animals preyed by predators. For example – vulture, crows, jackal, etc.

Question 5: Write down the steps involved in nutrition.

Answer: The steps involved in nutrition are:

  • Ingestion – The process of consuming food.
  • Digestion – Change of complex food into simple form by the action of enzymes.
  • Absorption – The process of extracting nutrients from the digested food and carrying them to all parts of the body through blood or lymph.
  • Assimilation – Utilization of absorbed nutrients from food for growth, repair and maintenance of the body.
  • Egestion – Expelling out the undigested food along with waste material.

Question 6: What is filter feeding?

Answer: Sponges that are found in water bodies have pores all over their body. Through these pores, the water in their surroundings passes and the nutrients from the water are filtered and retained by the sponges. This mode if ingestion is known as filter feeding.

Nutrition In Animals Questions & Answers

Question 7: State one function of the following:

(a) Cilia in Paramecium

Answer: Cilia push the food into the cell.

(b) Pseudopodia in amoeba

Answer: Pseudopodia help in capturing of food and locomotion.

(c) Omasum in ruminants

Answer: It is responsible for the absorption of excess water.

Question 8: What are ruminants? Name the four chambers of a ruminant’s stomach.

Answer: Animals which regurgitate the food stored in the rumen are known as ruminants.

The stomach of a ruminant is divided into four chambers namely:

  • Rumen
  • Reticulum
  • Omasum
  • Abomasum

Question 9: Name the type of carbohydrate that can be digested by ruminant stomach but not by human digestive system. Give reason for the same.

Answer: Cellulose is a type of carbohydrates that can be digested by ruminant stomach but not by human beings. The ruminant stomach has a chamber called rumen that aids in digestion of the cellulose, the human digestive system lacks this chamber, thus cannot digest cellulose.

Question 10: Tinku met with an accident and was badly injured on his face. The doctor checked his injuries and said he will face difficulty in biting and cutting food. Which of Tinku’s teeth are injured? Explain the structure of the injured teeth.

Answer:

  • Tinku must have injured his incisors.
  • Incisors are flat and chisel like sharp edged teeth.

Question 11: After the injury, Tinku was having only liquid food; however he could not brush teeth and noticed that a yellowish layer on the teeth. What is this yellowish layer on teeth and why is it formed on Tinku’s teeth?

Answer:

  • The yellowish layer is plaque.
  • Though Tinku is having only liquid food, some food particles tend to get stuck between the teeth.
  • The naturally present bacteria in our mouth, flourish between the teeth where food particles are stuck forming a yellowish layer on teeth.

Question 12: Explain the mechanism that prevents the food from entering the wind pipe.

Answer:

  • When we breathe, the epiglottis which is a flap that is made up of cartilage opens up to allow the air to pass into the wind pipe.
  • When we swallow food, the epiglottis closes so as to prevent the food from entering the wind pipe.
  • The food is thus allowed to enter only the food pipe.

Question 13: What are villi? What is their function?

Answer: Villi are the finger-like projections or outgrowth that are present in the inner walls of the small intestine of our digestive system. They help to increase the surface area for the absorption of food.

Question 14: Why does glucose give instant energy?

Answer: Glucose is a simple sugar that gets easily absorbed by the blood whereas other carbohydrates are first broken down into glucose and then get absorbed. Thus, glucose gives instant energy.

Nutrition In Animals Questions & Answers

Question 15: What is phagocytosis?

Answer: The process of engulfing a food particle and breaking it down inside a cell is known as phagocytosis.

Question 16: Explain the role of salivary glands.

Answer: Our digestive system gets ready to digest the food by secreting the digestive juices, the secretion in our mouth is called saliva which is secreted by salivary glands. The saliva mainly breaks down the starch in our food into a simpler form due to the presence of a chemical in it which is an enzyme called amylase.

Question 17: State the functions of the labelled parts of the teeth.

Types Of Teeth

Answer:

Incisors – Help to bite and cut food into small chewable pieces.

Canines – Help in tearing the food.

Premolars – Help to crush, grind and move food from the front teeth to the molars for chewing.

Molars – To chew the food into small, easily consumable pieces.

Question 18: Give reasons for the following statements.

(a) Stomach produces hydrochloric acid.

Answer: Hydrochloric acid mixes with the partially digested food from the mouth and provides the acidic environment necessary for digestion of the food. It also helps to control the bacteria and other microorganisms present in the food.

(b) Mucus is present in saliva.

Answer: The mucus is present in saliva to make food slimy and slippery so that it can be easily swallowed.

Question 19: Ria counted her permanent teeth in a mirror and made the following observations as shown below. She however made some mistakes. Help Ria to correct her mistakes.

Types of teeth – Number of teeth

  • Incisors – 14
  • Canines – 4
  • Premolars – 8
  • Molars – 8

Answer:

Types of teeth- Number of teeth

  • Incisors – 8
  • Canines – 4
  • Premolars – 8
  • Molars – 12

Question 20: What are taste buds? Explain their function.

Answer: The tongue shows the presence of specialized cells called taste buds. These taste buds help us in sensing different tastes such as salty, sweet, sour and bitter.

Question 21: What could happen if there was no epiglottis in the pharynx region?

Answer: Epiglottis helps to prevent the food from entering into the wind pipe. When we swallow food, the epiglottis closes to prevent the food from entering the wind pipe. If epiglottis is not present, the food will enter in the wind pipe, which can lead to choking and further leads to death.

Nutrition In Animals Questions & Answers

Question 22: Name the ways through which the following living organisms ingest their food.

Answer:

  • Paramoecium – Through cilia
  • Butterflies – Proboscis
  • Humans & Animals – Mouth
  • Frogs & Chameleons – Long sticky tongues to catch their prey

Question 23: What is rumination?

Answer: The process of storing food in the rumen and regurgitating it to the mouth is known as rumination.

Question 24: What is peristalsis?

Answer: The oesophagus or food pipe undergoes a series of wave-like contractions that propel the food forward. This process is called peristalsis.

Question 25: In the following questions, two statements are given- one labelled Assertion (A) and the other labelled Reason (R). Read the statements carefully and choose the correct alternative (A), (B), (C) and (D) as given below.

(A) Both A and R are true and R is the correct explanation of the assertion.

(B) Both A and R are true but R is not the correct explanation of the assertion.

(C) A is true but R is false.

(D) A is false but R is true.

1. Assertion: Camels are carnivores.

Reason: Carnivores feed only on the flesh of other animals.

Answer: (D)

2. Assertion: The small intestine is the longest organ of the digestive tract.

Reason: The small intestine is 6-7 m long with a diameter of about 3-4 cm.

Answer: (A)

Question 26: What is chyme?

Answer: The stomach churns the food with gastric juices and acids and converts the partially digested food into a thick semifluid mass called chyme.

Question 27: Why hydrochloric acid doesn’t corrode the walls of stomach?

Answer: The stomach secretes gastric juices and a strong acid called hydrochloric acid which is necessary for the digestion of ingested foods especially carbohydrates and proteins. The mucous lining of the stomach prevents the walls of the stomach from the corrosive action of the acid.

Question 28: What is bile? Explain its role.

Answer: The secretion from the liver is called bile. It is responsible for the breakdown of fats in the small intestine.

Question 29: Is it possible for human beings to survive only on raw, leafy vegetables / grass? Discuss.

Answer: No, it is not possible for human beings to survive only on raw, leafy vegetables because they mainly consist of cellulose which cannot be digested by us due to lack of cellulose digesting enzyme in our body.

Question 30: What are the functions of the tongue in human body?

Answer:

  • It helps us to manoeuvre our food in the mouth.
  • It helps in mixing the food with the saliva well.
  • The tongue can also sense the food particles that need further chewing and can be directed towards the molars.
  • It helps us to taste the food we eat due to the presence of taste buds.
  • It is also important for speech.

Nutrition In Animals Questions & Answers

Question 31: What are Milk teeth and permanent teeth?

Answer:

The first set of teeth that are acquired between the ages of six months and three years is known as milk teeth. These are 20 in number and are also known as deciduous or primary teeth.

As the jaws grow and expand, the milk teeth are replaced one by one by the teeth of the secondary set. This set is also known as permanent teeth and is made of 32 teeth.

Question 32: What causes tooth decay?

Answer: The food that we eat gets stuck in the gaps between our teeth. Bacteria that are present in our mouth naturally flourish in these gaps containing food particles and form a sticky yellowish layer on teeth known as plaque. The plaque converts the sugar and starch present in the food items to acids. These acids corrode the enamel and may cause tooth decay and cavities.

Question 33: Describe nutrition in amoeba.

Answer: Amoeba is a unicellular organism found in freshwater bodies. It has a cell membrane, a nucleus, a food vacuole and a contractile vacuole amongst other cell organelles. Amoeba changes its shape constantly to form finger-like projections, called pseudopodia or false feet for movement and capturing of food. Amoeba feeds on plants or animals floating in the water. When it encounters food, it surrounds the food particle with its pseudopodia and engulfs it. The food gets trapped in a food vacuole where it is digested and assimilated. This process of engulfing a food particle and breaking it down inside a cell is called phagocytosis.

Question 34: How does digestion occur in ruminants?

Answer: When a ruminant eats grass or food, it is mixed with saliva for a short while before being swallowed and is stored in the rumen. Bacteria present in rumen secrete digestive enzymes that digest cellulose. The rumen and reticulum cause the food to separate into solid and liquid parts. The solid part is brought back to the mouth for further chewing. This partially digested solid part is called cud which is brought back to the mouth for chewing, where it is mixed with saliva and ground into smaller parts.

The food is then passed onto the next chamber of the stomach called the omasum. It is the smallest chamber and is responsible for the absorption of excess water. The last chamber of the stomach called the abomasum produces digestive enzymes that help in the digestion of food and hence, is considered as the ‘true’ stomach. The digested food is then passed into the small intestine where most of the nutrients are absorbed. The small intestine and the large intestine of a ruminant are connected by a large pouch called caecum that contains many bacteria which can further digest the cellulose. The undigested food is then excreted along with other waste materials.

Question 35: Fill in the blanks:

(a) The organ used by a paramecium for ingestion is called cilia.

(b) Pseudopodia are finger-like projections in amoeba.

(c) The part of the tooth that is visible above the gums is the crown.

(d) Hydrochloric acid is secreted in the stomach of human beings.

(e) Rumen is a special chamber present in animals feeding on cellulose.

(f) The secretion in the mouth of a human being which digests starch is known as saliva.

(g) In amoeba, the undigested food is expelled through the contractile vacuole.

(h) Incisors are used for biting and cutting into foods.

(i) The soft core of the tooth which is richly supplied with blood vessels and nerves is known as pulp.

(j) The hardest substance in our body is dentine.

(k) Peristalsis movement helps in pushing the food into the stomach.

(l) Butterflies suck nectar from flowers with a long tube called proboscis.

(m) The tongue is a muscular organ found at the base of the mouth.

(n) The partially digested solid part of food that is sent back to the mouth by ruminants is called cud.

(o) The largest gland in the human body is liver.

(p) The main steps of nutrition in humans are ingestion, digestion, absorption, assimilation and egestion.

Question 36: State whether the following statements are true or false:

(a) It is important to chew food properly – True

(b) The mouth is a cone-shaped passage way for both food and air – False

(c) There are 14 molars in adult humans – False

(d) Enzymes are biological catalysts which speed up chemical reactions inside our body – True

(e) Digestion of starch starts in the stomach – False

(f) The gall bladder temporarily stores bile – True

Question 37: Choose the correct option:

1. Which of the following term is used synonymously for autotrophic mode of nutrition?

(a) holophytic (b) holozoic (c) heterotrophic (d) none of these

Answer: (d) none of these

2. Why the boiled rice, after chewing does not show positive results in starch test?

(a) because starch is converted into rice

(b) starch is converted into cellulose

(c) because starch is converted into sugar

(d) because starch is converted into fat

Answer: (c) because starch is converted into sugar

3. Presence of starch in any food stuff can be detected using _____.

(a) iodine solution (b) water (c) Benedict’s solution (d) test tube and beaker

Answer: (a) iodine solution

4. Reema’s teacher has brought an almost empty toothpaste tube to show them ‘how the oesophagus works’. Which of the following actions should the teacher perform with the toothpaste tube to correctly explain the peristalsis movement?

(a) cut the tube from middle and scoop out the contents

(b) squeeze the tube repeatedly to propel the contents forward

(c) poke holes in the tube and then squeeze out the contents

(d) keep the tube inverted so that the contents settle to its bottom

Answer: (b) squeeze the tube repeatedly to propel the contents forward

5. Fat gets completely digested in the

(a) mouth (b) stomach (c) small intestine (d) large intestine

Answer: (c) small intestine

Question 38: Which part of the digestive canal is involved in:

(a) Chewing of food – Buccal cavity

(b) Absorption of food – Small intestine

(c) Formation of faeces – Large intestine

(d) Killing of bacteriaStomach

(e) Complete digestion of food – Small intestine

So. these were Nutrition In Animals Questions & Answers.

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