Water – The Blue Resource Questions & Answers

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Water – The Blue Resource Questions & Answers

Question 1: List down the various uses of water.

Answer: The uses of water are – domestic, irrigation, industries, trade and transport, to generate hydroelectric power, plants and animals, marine life, climate, water balance and hydrological cycle.

Question 2: What is a watershed?

Answer: Watershed is an area that catches rain and snow and drains into small streams, rivers, lakes etc.

Question 3: Define the term water table.

Answer: The upper level of the collected underground water is called water table.

Question 4: How does afforestation helps in water conservation?

Answer: Afforestation can be practiced in the catchment areas of the dams resulting in soil conservation and increase in the water table.

Question 5: Define the term multipurpose dams.

Answer: Most of the major rivers have dams for optimum management of river water. Such dams perform various functions and are called multipurpose dams.

Question 6: What are the various uses of multipurpose dams?

Answer: The uses of multipurpose dams are:

  • They generate electricity.
  • They control floods.
  • Canals are constructed from dams for irrigation.
  • The good infrastructure of waterways supports inland navigation and reduces load on roadways and railways.
  • Pisciculture can be practiced.
  • Afforestation can be practiced in the catchment areas of the dams resulting in soil conservation.
  • The best recreational spots encouraging tourism.

Question 7: Give a detailed account of the uneven distribution of water.

Answer: Distribution of water is uneven due to uneven nature of rainfall. The equatorial region and the tropical regions Have more precipitation than evaporation. These areas have excess water and the biggest rives of the world such as Amazon, Congo, etc.

Water – The Blue Resource Questions & Answers

Question 8: What are the various steps taken for the conservation of water resource?

Answer: The various steps are:

  • Recycling the water from the industrial waste and urban sewage before increasing them into water bodies.
  • Recharging in the underground water by afforestation. It will also prevent soil erosion and surface run off.
  • Avoiding wastage of water in domestic use and making recycling a daily habit.
  • Water saving methods of irrigation such drip-irrigation, trickle irrigation and sprinklers irrigation should be used in agriculture.
  • Rainwater harvesting in areas such as arid and semi-arid regions and in urban areas where underground water cannot be collected, will save surface run off.
  • Seawater desalinization is undertaken by many countries.
  • River cleaning projects have been undertaken to improve quality of water.
  • Wetlands which are also the source of fresh water are being protected by various laws.
  • Technology such as construction of dams, can help the usage of water in a better way.
  • Community awareness and participation in water conservation such as Avari Pani Sansad in Alwar.

Question 9: What are the impacts of the scarcity of water?

Answer: The impacts of water scarcity are:

  • Scarcity of water is faced by many countries such as Northern Africa, Central and West Africa, Asia, parts of South America and Central and West Australia.
  • People have to walk long distances in order to fetch drinking water.
  • Growth and development of the area have been stalled because of the non-availability of the water.
  • Water though being free property is now being sold at a price which is steadily increasing with the demand.
  • People have to drink impure water that could lead to many water-borne diseases.

Question 10: Give Reasons.

(a) Water resources are unevenly available.

Reason: Water is present on land and air. Its distribution is highly uneven. Water present on the surface of the Earth is called surface water and is present in oceans, seas, lakes, rivers, etc. It gets replenished with rainfall. Most of the surface water (about 97%) is in the oceans and seas. This water is saline and not fit for human consumption.

(b) Rainwater harvesting should be done judiciously.

Reason: Rainwater harvesting in areas such as arid and semi-arid regions and in urban areas where underground water cannot be collected, will save surface run off and will make water available for various purposes, even in non-rainy season. It should also be harvested in the manner that is does not affect the natural catchment area of the existing water resource.

(c) Water has become scarce.

Reason: Water scarcity is the lack sufficient available water resources to meet the demands of water usage within a region. There is enough fresh water to meet the needs of 6 billion people. However, 1.2 million people still lack access to clean drinking water because of various reasons. Even in areas of heavy rainfall water scarcity is a reality. It is not only the quantity but also the quality of water that renders useless.

(d) Dams are being protested against by the environmentalists.

Reason:

  • Diversion of the natural course of river water, thereby destroying local ecology.
  • Submergence of forest covers because of increase in the level of surface water.
  • Reduction of the river water downstream and imbalance thus created in the ecology.
  • The level of the underground water is also reduced. Displacement of tribal from the adjoining forest areas.

(e) Some of the biggest deserts lie in the subtropical regions.

Reason: The subtropical areas between 200 – 400 North and South, face more evaporation than precipitation. Therefore, these areas have some of the largest deserts of the world such as Sahara, Arabian, Western Australian desert, etc.

Water – The Blue Resource Questions & Answers

Question 11: Differentiate between surface water and ground water.

Answer: Water present on the surface of the Earth is called surface water and is present in oceans, seas, rivers, lakes, etc. whereas the water that seeps underground during rains and is available as underground water resource is called ground water.

Question 12: Differentiate between rivers of Northern India and Southern India.

Answer: The three river systems of the northern part of India – the Indus, the Ganga and the Brahmaputra carry about 60% of the total potential runoff. The rivers of South India are non-perennial. They are solely dependent on the monsoon for water and peninsular India is prone to drought.

Question 13: Why does the depth of the water table vary from place to place?

Answer: Water tables are influenced by many factors – topography, geology, weather, ground cover, and land use. An area’s water table can fluctuate as water seeps downward from the surface. It filters through soil, sediment, and rocks. This water includes precipitation, such as rain and snow. Irrigation from crops and other plants may also contribute to a rising water table. Light, porous rocks can hold more water than heavy, dense rocks.

Question 14: How do political factors cause water scarcity? What is the impact of water scarcity on people?

Answer: Political factors such as indecision of the government on various multipurpose projects and unwillingness of the states to share water resources with another territory are the reasons of shortage of water. Due to the water scarcity people have to walk long distances in order to fetch drinking water. Growth and development of the area has been stalled because of the non-availability of the water. Water though being free property is now being sold at a price which is steadily increasing with the demand. People have to drink impure water that could lead to many water borne diseases.

Question 15: Give five reasons of freshwater scarcity due to Human factor.

Answer: Water Scarcity due to Human Factors:

Depletion of usable freshwater means reducing the current water reserve before it gets replenished. It is caused because of many factors.
(a) Misuse: Old lakes, swamps, marshes have been reclaimed for construction purposes. Rivers are being dammed and their courses changed in order to provide drinking water to the city.
(b) Wastage: In domestic use, inappropriate irrigation techniques and industrial uses.
(c) Over-exploitation: Overdrawing of underground water has reduced the water table in most of the areas.
(d) Poor storage of water.
(e) Pollution: Pollution destroys the quality of the river water, thereby making it useless and creating a superficial shortage.

So, these were Water – The Blue Resource Questions & Answers.