Struggle For India’s Independence Questions & Answers

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Struggle For India’s Independence Questions & Answers

Question 1: Who were Early Nationalists? Name any three.

Answer: The leaders of the Congress, in its initial stage were known as Early Nationalists. They believed in bringing about change in society through constitutional reforms. Pherozeshah Mehta, Dadabhai Naoroji, Goplakrishna Gokhale were some of the eminent Early Nationalists.

Question 2: What do you understand by the term ‘Assertive Nationalism’?

Answer: The approach of the assertive Nationalist is termed as Assertive Nationalism, who believed in a more aggressive approach to be free from the oppressive policies of the British. They believed in complete freedom through self-rule or ‘Swaraj’.

Question 3: Why was the Lucknow Pact an important development between 1905 and 1919?

Answer: The historic Lucknow Pact signed in 1916 between the Congress and the Muslim League and the two organisations decided to work together towards achieving the goal of self-government.

Question 4: How was the partition of Bengal a part of the Divide and Rule policy of the British?

Answer: The partition aimed to divide the Hindus and Muslims in Bengal along communal lines in an effort to weaken the national movement.

Question 5: Why was the Rowlatt Act criticized strongly by people?

Answer: Rowlatt Act was criticized by people because it curtailed the basic fundamental rights such as freedom of speech and expression.

Question 6: What do you know about the Indian National Army?

Answer: Indian National Army was formed by Subhash Chandra Bose to overthrow British and free India from their control. He took the help of Japan to fight the British but Japan’s loss to the former dealt a blow to his plans. He is believed to have been killed in an air crash while returning from Japan in 1945.

Question 7: What did the Satyagraha Sabha urge the people to do related to the Rowlatt Act?

Answer: The Rowlatt Act of 1919 prompted Gandhiji to call for a nationwide protest against the Act. The political leaders criticised the Act and called it a ‘Black Act’. Gandhiji organised a Satyagraha Sabha and urged the people to protest non-violently against this Act.

Struggle For India’s Independence Questions & Answers

Question 8: What was the main feature of the Swadeshi Movement?

Answer: The main feature of the Swadeshi Movement was to boycott foreign goods and institutions, emphasised on the use of indigenous goods and clothes, self-reliance or self-help.

Question 9: Why is the second phase of the Indian National Movement also called the Gandhian era?

Answer: The second phase of the National Movement also called the Gandhian era because Having worked as a lawyer in South Africa for twenty years, he fought against racial discrimination meted out to the Indians there. Gandhiji himself faced racial discrimination on numerous occasions. Gandhiji evolved a technique of civil disobedience or passive struggle which he termed as Satyagraha. His efforts were successful in South Africa and this prompted him to free India from the British rule.

Question 10: Why was the Rowlatt Act of 1919 criticised by the Indian political leaders?

Answer:

  • The Act curtailed the basic fundamental rights such as freedom of speech and expression.
  • The Act also allowed the government to arrest anyone it deemed suspicious and imprison anyone without a trial.

Question 11: Why was the Simon Commission greeted with black flags and the slogan of ‘Simon go back’?

Answer: Boycott of the Simon Commission which was sent to make changes to the structure of the Indian Government. As the Commission did not include any Indian and was not ready to accept the demand for Purna Swaraj, Indians boycotted the Commission and posters of ‘Simon Go Back’ were seen in many places.

Question 12: What was the slogan of the Quit India Movement?

Answer: Do or die’ (Karo Ya Maro) – ‘Quit India’ (Bharat Chhoro) This call was given by the Congress Working Committee while launching the Quit India movement on August 8, 1942. Millions of Congress workers went to jail in the final phase of our freedom struggle.

Question 13: What was the situation of India during partition?

Answer: The Indian state of East Punjab was created in 1947, when the Partition of India split the former British province of Punjab between India and Pakistan. The mostly Muslim western part of the province became Pakistan’s Punjab province; the mostly Sikh and Hindu eastern part became India’s East Punjab state.

Question 14: What is the Mountbatten Plan?

Answer: Lord Mountbatten was the last Viceroy of India. He presented a plan to divide India into two countries – India and Pakistan as the Muslim League was adamant on the formation of Pakistan. This plan came to be known as the Mountbatten Plan.

Struggle For India’s Independence Questions & Answers

Question 15: Why was the Cripp’s Mission not accepted by the Indian leaders?

Answer: World War II broke out in 1939 when Poland was attacked by Germany. The Congress and Gandhiji decided that India could not support Britain in the Second World War as it was fought for freedom whereas their freedom was denied by the same people they were asked to support. The Congress agreed to support only if Britain agreed to free India. When the Congress did not get a positive answer from the British, the Congress ministries resigned from the government in protest.

Question 16: Why was Cabinet Mission sent to India in 1946?

Answer: The Cabinet Mission was to transfer the power in the hands of the Indians through the formation of an interim government. A Constituent Assembly was to be formed to frame the Indian Constitution.

Question 17: What did Gandhiji do to indicate the start of the Civil Disobedience Movement?

Answer: The Indian flag was first hoisted on December 31, 1929. The Congress decided to launch a Civil Disobedience Movement in 1930 as their demand for independence was not agreed upon by the British. On January 26, 1930 public meetings were held and the Independence Pledge was read out to the people. Gandhiji decided to start the Civil Disobedience Movement by breaking a law that concerned people of all religions and economic status, whether rich or poor. Gandhiji decided to break the Salt Law which only allowed the British to manufacture salt.

Question 18: What are the main features of the Nehru Report?

Answer: The main features of the Nehru Report are as follows:
a) It proposed dominion status for India.
b) It rejected the system of communal electorates.
c) Reservation of seats for Muslims in the states where they were a minority.
d) Universal adult suffrage, women’s rights and freedom to form associations and no religious connotation in the state matters was also advocated.

Struggle For India’s Independence Questions & Answers

Question 19: ‘Civil Disobedience Movement was the first mass freedom movement in India in the true sense.’ Justify your answer giving reasons. 

Answer: People from all communities and classes joined the movement. Peasants, women, students, youth and even the tribals took part in the movement. Workers went on strikes, students left government schools and colleges, people refused to pay taxes. For the first time, people united for the cause of Independence and hence it became the first mass freedom movement in India in the true sense

Question 20: What are the main features of the Non-cooperation movement?

Answer: The main features of the Non-cooperation movement are as follows:

a) People boycotted and burned foreign cloth in many cities and towns.
b) Many lawyers such as C.R. Das, Motilal Nehru, Vallabhbhai Patel gave up their law practices.
c) Thousands of students left foreign schools and colleges.
d) Picketing of shops that sold foreign cloth was a common feature.
e) On the suggestion of Gandhiji, people started using charkha and the khadi cloth.
f) people resigned from government jobs and committees.
g) Non-violent hartals and processions were carried throughout the country.

Question 21: Mention the developments after 1945 that led to India’s independence.

Answer: There was a dramatic change in the political situation India after the end of the Second World War. Although Britain along with its allies had won the Second World war, they were steadily losing the battle with the Indians. It was evident that Indian independence was not too far. The success of the Quit India Movement helped the people to continue the freedom struggle. They were sure that free India would be a reality in a short span of time. The change of power in the Great Britain was an important development too. The Labour Party, led by Prime Minister Clement Atlee decide to lift the ban on the Congress and sent a Cabinet Mission to India. The Cabinet Mission was to transfer the power in the hands of the Indians through the formation of an interim government. A Constituent Assembly was to be formed to frame the Indian Constitution.

So, these were Struggle For India’s Independence Questions & Answers.