Tribal Societies and The Colonial Rule Questions & Answers

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In my previous posts, I have shared Questions & Answers of Beginning of Colonial Rule in India, Agrarian Policies of the British, Traces of Modern Indian History and The Great Uprising of 1857 so, you can check these posts as well. I have also shared Tribal Societies and The Colonial Rule Objective Type Questions & Answers so, make sure to check this post also.

Tribal Societies and The Colonial Rule Questions & Answers

Question 1: Name the various sources of tribal livelihood.

Answer: Hunting animals and gathering forest resources are the various sources of tribal livelihood.

Question 2: Give the names of the leaders of the Santhal Revolt.

Answer: Sido and Kanhu were the leaders of the Santhal Revolt.

Question 3: Where were the shifting cultivators found?

Answer: The shifting cultivators were found in the hilly and forested tracts of north-east and central India.

Question 4: Which were the tribal groups that lived on herding animals?

Answer: The Van Gujjars of the Punjab hills, Labadis of Andhra Pradesh, Gaddis of Kulu and Bakarwals of Kashmir were the tribal groups that lived on herding animals.

Question 5: Which forests were categorized as the Reserved forests?

Answer: Some forests that produced timber which was the British need were classified as the Reserved forests.

Question 6: Why did the British introduce land settlements? How?

Answer: The British introduced land settlements because:

  • It wanted tribal groups such as shifting cultivators to settle down at one place and become settled cultivators as it was easier for the British to control and administer people located in one place.
  • It was easy for the British to collect revenue from a settled community.
  • The British enforced land settlements in order to obtain a regular source of revenue for the state.

Tribal Societies and The Colonial Rule Questions & Answers

Question 7: How did the colonial rule impact the powers and the functions of the tribal chief?

Answer: Under the British rule, there was a drastic change witnessed in the functions and powers of the tribal chief. They lost their administrative powers and were compelled to follow the laws laid down by the British. They were permitted to retain their land titles over a cluster of villages and if they wished, they could even rent out their lands. They lost their authority among their people and had to pay tribute to the British.

Question 8: Throw light on the Birsa movement.

Answer: The Birsa movement can be explained as follows:

  • The Birsa movement was aimed to expel the missionaries, moneylenders, Hindu landlords and the government.
  • These forces were identified as the cause of sufferings of the Mundas.
  • In 1899, Birsa proclaimed to establish a Munda Raj.
  • He gathered a force of 6000 Mundas.
  • They attacked police stations, missionaries and the government offices. The white flag was raised as a symbol of Birsa Raj.
  • However, Birsa was arrested in 1900 and died in jail. With his death the movement fizzled out.

Question 9: What are the characteristics of shifting cultivation?

Answer: The characteristics of shifting cultivation are:

  • It is usually practiced on small plots of forests land.
  • The treetops are cut down to allow the sunlight to reach the ground and the areas of the forests are burned and cleared for planting.
  • The ashes of burnt trees which contained potash provide some fertilization.
  • Axe and hoe are used respectively, to cut trees and to scratch the soil. Subsequently, seeds are scattered on the field rather than ploughing the land and sowing the seeds.
  • After harvest, the land is left fallow for several years.

Question 10: Write a note on the settled cultivation.

Answer: Many tribal groups opted for a settled life and began to settle down permanently to cultivable land and stopped moving from place to place. As they began to cultivate their land, they gradually secured ownership rights over the land they lived on. In many tribal groups such as the Mundas of Chottanagpur, the land belonged to the entire clan. All members of the clan were considered as descendants of the common ancestor. They were the original settlers who first cleared the land. Therefore, all members of the clan had right on the land. Some members wielded more powers and became chiefs while others remained their followers. The influential and powerful men of the tribe rented out their land rather than cultivating it themselves.

Tribal Societies and The Colonial Rule Questions & Answers

Question 11: What were the main causes of the Santhal revolt?

Answer: The Santhal hool or uprising was an attempt to expel the outsiders such as landlords, mahajans, government officials who troubled the natives and proclaimed complete extinction of the alien rule. In 1855, the Santhals living between Bhagalpur and Rajmahal under the leadership of Sido and kanhu, rose in revolt.

Question 12: Give reasons:

(a) The tribals shared very intimate relationship with the forest.

Answer: The tribals shared very intimate relationship with the forest and depend on the natural resources of the forest for food, fuel and cattle-feed. Their lives are largely dependent on free movement within forest and on the use of land and forests for growing their crops. Many tribal groups earned their livelihood by hunting animals and gathering forest resources. Herding and rearing animals was another source of livelihood on which pastoralists lived. Many tribals groups opted for a settled life and began to settle down permanently to cultivate land and stopped moving from place to place.

(b) Under the British rule, a drastic change was witnessed in the functions and powers of the tribal chief.

Answer: Under the British rule, a drastic change was witnessed in the functions and powers of the tribal chief because they lost their administrative powers and were compelled to follow the laws laid down by the British. They were permitted to retain their lands titles over a cluster of villages and if they wished, they could even rent out their lands. They lost their authority among their people and had to pay tribute to the British.

So, these were Tribal Societies and The Colonial Rule Questions & Answers.