Education and The Colonial Rule Questions & Answers

Hi Everyone!! This article will share Education and The Colonial Rule Questions & Answers.

In my previous post, I have shared the Objective Type Questions & Answers of Education and The Colonial Rule so, make sure to check this post as well.

Education and The Colonial Rule Questions & Answers

Question 1: Who conceptualised Nai Talim?

Answer: Mahatma Gandhi coceptualised Nai Talim.

Question 2: Give the names of the traditional centres of learning of Hindus and Muslims.

Answer: Pathshalas and Maktabs were the traditional centres of learning of Hindus and Muslims respectively.

Question 3: Which proposal was described as the ‘Magna Carta of English Education in India’?

Answer: Wood’s Educational Despatch was described as the ‘Magna Carta of English Education in India’.

Question 4: Why was the Calcutta University Commission appointed?

Answer: In 1917, the Government appointed the Calcutta University Commission mainly to study the problem of the University of Calcutta.

Question 5: Where were the Universities founded in 1857?

Answer: The Universities were founded at Calcutta, Bombay and Madras in 1857.

Question 6: Discuss the traditional education system of India.

Answer:

  • Prior to the British rule, traditional system of education was followed in India.
  • Elementary education was imparted in pathshalas and maktabs and restricted to the study of three Rs (reading, writing and arithmetic), religion while higher education was restricted to the study of classical Sanskrit, Arabic and Persian in tols and madrasas.
  • Grammar, Classical Literature, Logic, Philosophy, Law and Religious texts formed the main elements of higher study.
  • The local schools had no printed books, no fixed fee, no separate school building, no classrooms, no roll calls, no annual examinations and no fixed time-table.
  • This flexible system of education was suitable to local needs that enabled the rural children to support their families and to study.

Education and The Colonial Rule Questions & Answers

Question 7: How did female education receive great impetus in British India?

Answer:

  • Female education received a great impetus through various reformed samajas and societies such as the Brahmo Samaj, the Arya Samaj and Servants of Indian Society, etc.
  • The formation of the Hindu Balika Vidyalaya in Kolkata in 1849 marked a turning point in the history of female education.
  • Wood’s Despatch of 1854 made a special reference to education of women and the British Government assumed direct responsibility for making women literate.
  • The first Indian Women’s University was started in 1916 by Maharshi Karve.
  • An All-India Women’s Conference was founded in 1927.
  • It did outstanding work in promoting female education.

Question 8: What were the recommendations of Wood’s Despatch?

Answer: The recommendations of Wood’s Despatch were:

  • To create a separate Department of Education in each province,
  • To establish Universities at the Presidency towns, namely, Kolkata, Mumbai and Chennai,
  • To take adequate measures for the establishment of institutions for training teachers for all classes of school,
  • To maintain and reform existing government colleges and high schools and increase their number, if required,
  • To open new middle schools,
  • To improve vernacular schools, native schools for elementary education,
  • To introduce a grants-in-aid system in private schools.
  • Emphasis was to be given on mass education and women education.

Question 9: Why did Mahatma Gandhi believe that colonial education enslaved Indians?

Answer:

  • Mahatma Gandhi believed that colonial education had enslaved Indians because Indians began admiring British rule and considered western civilisation superior.
  • Indians educated in British institutions began to treat their own culture as inferior.

Question 10: What were the reasons for the appointment of the Universities Commission?

Answer: The reasons for the appointment of the Universities Commission were:

  • To recommend measures to improve their organization and working.
  • To inquire into the conditions and future prospects of the Indian Universities established by the British Government.
  • To suggest ways and means to raise the standard of University teaching and to promote advancement of learning.

Education and The Colonial Rule Questions & Answers

Question 11: Write a note on the initiatives taken by the Indians in the field of Education.

Answer:

  • It was only from 1817 that we find concerted Indian initiatives in the field of education.
  • The notable institution, namely, the Calcutta School Book society was founded in 1817 to make available good textbooks not only in English but also in Indian languages suitable for schools.
  • In the same year, another most significant initiative was the establishment of Hindu College by Raja Rammohan Roy, in association with David Hare.
  • There were men in Bengal who admitted the value of Oriental learning for advancement of civilization.
  • Raja Rammohan Roy, one of the greatest supporters of Western education also founded the Vedanta College to offer courses which will be a blend of Western and Indian learning.
  • Ishwar Chandra Vidyasagar was instrumental in opening approximately thirty-five schools in Bengal.
  • Swami Dayanand Saraswati, Swami Vivekananda and several others did pioneer work by establishing various schools and colleges.

Question 12: What was the impact of educational policies of the British?

Answer:

  • The British Government looked at modern education as the medium to strengthen the foundations of their political power in India.
  • The decision to make English as the medium of Indian education failed to take into account the Muslims and women.
  • Elementary schools were not opened in large numbers as more emphasis was given on modern and higher education. Therefore, mass education was neglected through vernacular schools.
  • The government was not willing to spend on education more than the money allotted for the purpose and relied on the ‘filtration theory’.
  • According to the theory, the government would educate a handful of Indians who would expect to educate the masses and spread modern ideas among them.
  • English education was the only provision for higher appointments opened to the Indians. Further, the entire system of indigenous learning was dependent mainly on the patronage of opulent Hindu and Muslim families. As a result, Western education made rapid progress and the traditional system of Indian learning gradually declined.

Question 13: Creative learning could be imparted within natural ambiance. Give reasons.

Answer:

  • Rabindranath Tagore was another notable scholar who promoted national education.
  • He always envisioned a school where a child would be free, happy and creative and was able to explore his thoughts.
  • He felt that self-learning should be promoted from childhood and it should be outside the rigid schooling system of British.
  • According to Tagore, teachers should be innovative and imaginative.
  • They should understand children and help them to develop their curious minds.
  • He was of the opinion that creative learning could be imparted within natural ambiance.

Question 14: Education in English had made Indians ‘strangers in their own lands’. Give reason.

Answer:

  • Mahatma Gandhi wanted such an educational system that could enable the Indians to recover their self-respect and sense of dignity.
  • He strongly felt that Indian languages should be the medium of instruction because education in English had made Indians ‘strangers in their own lands’.

So, these were Education and The Colonial Rule Questions & Answers.

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