Towns Traders and Artisans Questions & Answers

Hi Everyone!! This article will share Towns, Traders and Artisans Questions & Answers.

In my previous post, I have shared the Objective Type Questions & Answers of Towns, Traders and Artisans so, make sure to check that post as well.

Towns Traders and Artisans Questions & Answers

Question 1: What was the primary function and secondary function of the administrative towns?

Answer: Administration was the primary function and secondary importance was manufacturing and religion.

Question 2: What is a mandi?

Answer: Mandis were the places where the nearby villagers brought the produce to sell.

Question 3: What is the other name of Hampi? Where is Hampi situated?

Answer: It has also been referred to as Vijayanagara and Virupakshapura. Hampi is situated on the banks of the Tungabhadra river in the northern Karnataka state.

Question 4: How did Hampi get its name?

Answer: The name ‘Hampi’ is an adopted version of the Kannada word ‘Hampe’ which is derived from Pampa, the ancient name for the Tungabhadra River.

Question 5: What was the important factor that helped in the development the pilgrimage centres?

Answer: Religion was an important factor that helped to develop pilgrimage centres.

Question 6: How did the coming of the medieval rulers help craftsmen?

Answer: The technological devices of the medieval rulers helped the urban manufacturers.

Question 7: Name the foreign nations that set up factories in Masulipatnam.

Answer: The foreign nations that set up factories in Masulipatam were, the Dutch, the French and the British.

Towns Traders and Artisans Questions & Answers

Question 8: What account did Duarte give about Surat?

Answer: According to Duarte Barbosa, a Portuguese traveller, ships from many countries docked at Surat.

Question 9: How did the coastal cities become prosperous?

Answer: The coastal cities became prosperous on account of their extensive trade with outside world as the trade was centred on the coastal regions.

Question 10: How did Masulipatam get its name as Machlipatnam?

Answer: Machlipatnam got its name from the gateway to the town which is decorated with the eyes of a fish (machli).

Question 11: How the Kalamkari designs are created?

Answer: Masulipatam is famous for its Kalamkari textiles and prints. The designs are created by using natural and vegetable dyes to draw onto the cloth with a bamboo pen.

Question 12: Describe the architecture of Hampi.

Answer: The opulent palaces, massive fortifications, marvellous temples, markets, baths, pavilions and stables for royal elephants once embellished the city.

Question 13: List two observations made by Abdur Razzak about Hampi.

Answer: He says that he had never seen a place like the city of Bidjanagar. The bazaars were extremely broad. Roses were sold everywhere.

Question 14: Describe the various styles of architecture that once existed in Hampi.

Answer: Palaces, massive fortifications, temples, markets, baths, pavilions and stables for royal elephants once embellished the city.

Question 15: Discuss the role of medieval trading communities.

Answer:

  • The trading communities of India namely, Chettiars, Marwari Oswals, Gujarati traders including Hindu Banias and Muslim Bohras traded with the ports of East Africa, the Red Sea, the Persian Gulf, South-east Asia and China.
  • The chief articles of trade were spices and textiles that were sold in these ports.
  • In return, the traders brought ivory and gold from Africa and spices, tin, Chinese blue pottery and silver from South-east Asia and China.
  • The traders involved in these trades earned huge profits.
  • New trade routes were developed that eventually helped to grow trading towns such as Surat, Masulipatam, Patna, Dhaka, Agra, etc.

Towns Traders and Artisans Questions & Answers

Question 16: Discuss the factors responsible for the development of towns.

Answer: Several factors were responsible for the development of towns in the medieval period.

  • Some towns were founded by the rulers and administrators while others came into existence due to commercial interest which led to the growth of trade and these places became trading towns.
  • In some cases, strategic and geographical factors influenced the growth of towns while others grew as religious centres or temple towns.
  • There were many towns which combined several functions as they were administrative centres, temple towns as well as centres of commercial activities and craft production.

Question 17: How did the trade with the Europeans develop the port towns?

Answer:

  • The European powers entered India through India’s sea frontiers. The coastal cities became prosperous on account of their extensive trade with outside world as the trade was centred on the coastal regions.
  • India’s raw materials and manufactures secured new markets, thereby encouraging extensive trade and also led to the growth of new sea ports and towns such as Balasore, Hugli, etc.
  • There were traditional sea ports such Surat, Bharuch, Cambay (Khambat), etc. and trade with the Europeans stimulated the development of these ports.
  • These ports were located on the Western coast while Nagapatnam and Masulipatam were important ports on the Eastern coastline.
  • The main exports of India were various textiles, indigo, pepper, saltpetre, etc. and the articles were perfumes, precious stones, metals, etc.

Question 18: Write a note on crafts and technology in town.

Answer:

  • The medieval period also saw specialised craft scattered over different parts of the country which led to the growth of the crafts towns.
  • Indian artisans such weavers, painters, carpenters, perfume makers, etc. contributed significantly in popularizing Indian crafts in India and all around the world.
  • Further, the technological devices that came to India with the medieval rulers helped the urban manufacturers. For example, a Persian wheel, a mechanical device used to lift water from wells or pits.
  • Most of the urban centres had their artisans and their industries which produces luxury and semi luxurious goods catering to the needs of the Kings and the nobles.
  • These were centres which flourished largely for their distinctive manufacturing technique or skill or local commodity. Bidar was known for its Bidri work, Bayana because of indigo, Murshidabad an important centre for different kinds of silk fabrics, Khairabad in Awadh for textiles, Patan in Gujarat for dyeing, and Hyderabad was a gem cutting and trading centre for jewels.

Question 19: Surat emerged as an important trading centre. Give reasons.

Answer:

  • Surat emerged as an important trading centre and enjoyed prosperity through sea trade. It was the gateway for the traders to conduct trade with West Asia.
  • During the reign of the Mughals, Surat grew as an important commercial city, particularly famous for cotton textiles. The textiles of Surat were famous for their zari (gold lace borders) and exported to markets in West Asia, Africa and Europe.
  • Surat had huge banking houses of seths (wealthy persons) from Saurashtra or mahajans (money lenders). The immense trading opportunities brought the European powers to Surat.
  • The Portuguese, Dutch, English and French established their ware houses and factories at Surat in seventeenth century.
  • In 1689 CE Ovington the English chronicler stated in his account about the port that on an average a hundred ships from various countries could be found anchored at the port at any given time.

Question 20: Hampi gained prominence during the Vijayanagara Empire. Give reasons.

Answer:

  • Hampi began to gain prominence when Harihara and Bukka made it the capital of their kingdom in 1336 CE.
  • Hampi was chosen as the capital because of its strategic location and geographical features.
  • It was bounded by the Tungabhadra river on one side and was surrounded by the hills on the other three sides.
  • During the reign of Krishnadeva Raya, Hampi experienced success and prosperity.

Question 21: The medieval period saw growth in coastal cities, sea ports and town.

Answer:

  • The coastal cities became prosperous due to extensive trade with outside world.
  • India’s raw materials and manufactures secured new markets, which encouraged extensive trade and also led to the growth of new sea ports and towns.

So, these were Towns Traders and Artisans Questions & Answers.