Colonialism and Urbanisation Questions & Answers

Hi Everyone!! This article will share Colonialism and Urbanisation Questions & Answers.

In my previous posts, I have shared the questions & answers of Tribal Societies and The Colonial Rule, Beginning of Colonial Rule in India, Traces of Modern Indian History, Agrarian Policies of the British and The Great Uprising of 1857 so, you can check these posts as well. I have also shared Colonialism and Urbanisation Objective Type Questions & Answers so, make sure to check this post also.

Colonialism and Urbanisation Questions & Answers

Question 1: What is urbanisation?

Answer: Urbanisation is the process that leads to the growth and development of cities and towns and is mainly caused due to migration of an increasing number of people, especially, rural dwellers into cities.

Question 2: Who established a police force to maintain law and order?

Answer: Lord Cornwallis established a police force to maintain law and order.

Question 3: Who were the two architects who designed New Delhi?

Answer: Sir Edwin Lutyens and Herbert Baker were the two architects who designed New Delhi.

Question 4: Give the names of historical places in Kolkata.

Answer: Some historical places in Kolkata are:

  • Victoria Memorial
  • Indian Museum
  • Howrah Bridge

Question 5: Why did Ambala Cantonment, Mughalsarai and Vijaywada grow into towns and cities?

Answer: Ambala Cantonment, Mughalsarai and Vijaywada grow into towns and cities because they emerged as important railway stations.

Question 6: Who was appointed as the Director General of Telegraph?

Answer: Sir William O’Shaughnessy Brooke was appointed as the Director General of Telegraph.

Question 7: What is Cantonment?

Answer: The Cantonment is a military garrison or a camp.

Question 8: Name any three hill stations developed by the British.

Answer: Shimla, Darjeeling and Mussoorie are the hill stations developed by the British.

Colonialism and Urbanisation Questions & Answers

Question 9: Why did the British plan to design New Delhi?

Answer: The British planned to design New Delhi because:

  • They very well knew the symbolic significance of New Delhi.
  • The shift of capital from Kolkata to Delhi was also announced and the two architectsSir Edwin Lutyens and Herbert Baker were given the responsibility to design New Delhi.
  • Their purpose was to represent a sense of law and order against the chaos of Old Delhi.
  • The idea was to build a city which was completely in contrast to Shahjahanabad.
  • The British wanted to have better water supply, sewage disposal, drainage facilities, trees and parks ensuring fresh air and oxygen for the New Delhi.

Question 10: What were the main reasons of deurbanisation?

Answer: Deurbanisation is a process reverse of urbanisation, in which due to various reasons people migrate back to villages and which results in the decline of urban population.
The main reasons of deurbanisation were:

  • Many towns noted for their specialized goods declined due to decrease in the demand of the goods they produced.
  • Shift of trade to new trading centres resulted in the decline of the old ones and ports.
  • The British defeated many local rulers and annexed their kingdoms. These were the centres of regional powers earlier. But the collapse of such cities and the withdrawl of royal patronage forced the local people living in there to leave the cities and shift to the villages in the countryside.

Question 11: How did the presidency towns come into existence?

Answer: The English East India Company came to India as a trading organization and soon transformed itself into a political force. The growth of the port cities was largely due to the development of the trading outposts of the Company. The earliest trading settlements of the Company, that is, trading posts assumed the governing role over the cities and territories and became Presidency towns.

Question 12: Write a note on the telegraph system evolved by the British.

Answer: In 1851, the telegraph service was started by the British from the city of Kolkata to its suburb, Diamond Harbour. It was primarily for official use, but within a few years of time, telegraph lines were expanded to the entire country. In 1855, the service was opened for public use as ‘new method of rapid communication’. In 1857,Sir William O’Shaughnessy Brooke, an Irishman was appointed on the Post of Director General of Telegraph.

Colonialism and Urbanisation Questions & Answers

Question 13: What was the importance of Shimla?

Answer: Shimla is the capital town of Himachal Pradesh. The British built it on land they retained after the Gurkha War of 1814–16. It became the strategic outpost of the British which was used for resting troops. The British partly conducted their administration from Shimla which also served as the summer capital of colonial India.

Question 14: In the colonial city, how did prominent Indian merchants establish themselves?

Answer: Prominent Indian merchants establish themselves in all three metro colonial cities i.e., Madras (Chennai), Bombay (Mumbai) and Calcutta (Kolkata). They tried to establish their relationship with the agents of the company. As the cities were trade centres and administrative centers therefore, the Indian merchants could easily establish a relation with the Europeans.

Question 15: Give reasons:

(a) The cantonments transformed into towns.

Answer: The Cantonment is a military garrison or a camp. This British military settlement was initially established as a military base to station the British army. Subsequently, people associated with servicing the military began to settle down there. This led to the development of a full-fledged town.

(b) The greatest incentive to urbanization was development of hill stations.

Answer: The greatest incentive to urbanization was development of hill stations because:

  • These hill stations were developed by the British to escape the heat of the plains and also to recover from the disease of the tropics.
  • Shimla became the strategic outpost of the British which was used for resting troops.
  • It also served as the summer capital of colonial India.

So, these were Colonialism and Urbanisation Questions & Answers.