India After The Mughals Questions & Answers

Hi Everyone!! This article will share India After The Mughals Questions & Answers.

In my previous posts, I have shared the Objective Type Questions & Answers of India After The Mughals so, make sure to check that post as well.

India After The Mughals Questions & Answers

Question 1: What factor led to the decline of the Rajputs during the reign of the later Mughals?

Answer: The Maratha campaigns into Rajasthan led to the decline of the Rajputs.

Question 2: What was the duty of the Sachiva in the Maratha administration?

Answer: The sachiva was the home secretary who was responsible for all official correspondence.

Question 3: Discuss administrative reform of Murshid Quli Khan.

Answer:

  • He snatched the opportunity and became an independent ruler.
  • He shifted his capital from Dhaka to Murshidabad.
  • By keeping the economic interests of his province in mind, he carefully managed his revenue and increased his finances.
  • He even adopted severe measures to collect revenue from the local zamindars.
  • He provided all facilities and assistance to the traders, thereby helping to develop trade.

Question 4: Awadh emerged as a powerful kingdom during the medieval period. Explain.

Answer:

  • Burhan-ul-Mulk Saadat Khan was appointed as the governor of Awadh by Emperor Muhammad Shah in 1722CE.
  • By taking advantage of the prevailing conditions in Delhi, Awadh became independent.
  • Awadh was a rich and prosperous region that controlled the Ganga plain and the main trade route between Bengal and the North India.
  • He managed the political (subedari), financial (diwani) and military (faujdari) affairs of Awadh.
  • He undertook several steps to reduce the Mughal influence in Awadh.
  • He reduced the size of jagirs, selected his own trustworthy servants to vacant positions.
  • The accounts of jagirdars were checked to prevent cheating and the revenue of all districts reassessed by ministers appointed by the Nawab’s courts.
  • He was succeeded by his nephew and son-in-law, Safdar Jung. He established peace and order in Awadh.

India After The Mughals Questions & Answers

Question 5: Explain the military system of the Marathas.

Answer:

  • Marathas had a very well equipped standing army consisting of both infantry and cavalry, and even had a navy.
  • Strict discipline was maintained in the army. They mainly adopted the guerrilla tactics of warfare.
  • The military strength of the Marathas lay in the forts.
  • The forts were carefully supervised and great precaution was taken to maintain the garrisons in the forts.

Question 6: Explain chauth and sardeshmukhi.

Answer: Due to the hilly terrain, the Maratha State did not yield much land revenue. Therefore, besides land revenue the other sources of income were chauth which is one-fourth of the estimated revenue of the territory and sardeshmukhi, an additional levy of 10% collected from those lands over which the Marathas claimed hereditary rights but which formed part of the neighbouring Mughal territories.

Question 7: Explain Shivaji’s early military success.

Answer: Shivaji’s great aspiration was to create an independent kingdom. His earliest military successes recorded were when he captured many hill forts near Pune, Rajgad, Kondana, Torana. By the virtue of his conquest, he was able to extend his kingdom further.

Question 8: Discuss Nadir shah’s expedition to Delhi.

Answer: The decline of Mughal Empire received a staggering blow when Nadir Shah of Persia plundered the city of Delhi in 1739 CE. His invasion caused considerable damage to the Mughal Empire. Thus, within a short span of Aurangzeb’s death, the vast Mughal Empire was split into numerous independent and semi-independent states.

Question 9: Who were known as king makers during the reign of the Later Mughals?

Answer: Farrukhsiyar owed his success to the two Sayyid brothers – Hussain Ali who became the commander-in-chief of the army and Abduallah who became the Wazir. They began to exercise the real power in the State. Farrukhsiyar’s attempt to establish his own authority caused the struggle for power between him and the Sayyid brothers. They deposed, blinded and executed him. They played a significant role of a king maker and raised Roshan Akhtar (son of Jahan Shah) on the throne. He ascended the throne as Muhammad Shah.

India After The Mughals Questions & Answers

Question 10: How did Jats establish their independent kingdom?

Answer: The weak successors of Aurangzeb also gave Jats the opportunity to explot the situation. They consolidayed their power and established themselves as an independent entity. They were divided into widely scattered units. Under their leader Churaman, the Jats acquired control over territories situated to the west of the Delhi. It was Badan Singh, a nephew of Churaman, who established his authority over almost the whole of Agra and Mathura districts. He was one of the most powerful Jat leaders who employed all tactics to achieve his aim. The Jats were prosperous agriculturists and the towns dominated by them became important trading centres. The Jat kingdom reached its zenith under Badan Singh’s adopted son and successor, Suraj Mal.

Question 11: The Maratha Empire developed into a loose confederacy. Give reasons.

Answer: The growth of the Maratha Empire made others rulers hostile towards them, as a result none of these powers supported them in the Third Battle of Panipat which caused a humiliating defeat for the Marathas. The Peshwas started losing control of the state and the empire gave way to a loose confederacy governed by the independent Maratha chiefs such as Gaikwad, Holkar, Sidhia and Bhonsle.

Question 12: The Sikh became highly militant entity. Give reasons.

Answer: The rise of the Sikhs as a separate religious entity began with Guru Nanak. In due course of time, they became more powerful and also engaged in the politics of the Mughal Empire. However, their prosecution under Aurangzeb turned out to be the reason for the revolts of the Sikhs. Guru Teg Bahadur’s (the ninth Sikh Guru) protests against certain rigid policies of Aurangzeb resulted in his execution. His successor Guru Gobind Singh transformed the Sikhs into warrior community. He established the Khalsa or the brotherhood of the Sikhs who became a highly militant entity.

So, these were India After The Mughals Questions & Answers.

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